The abbey was founded in 1217 by Malcolm I and was first occupied by monks from Kinloss Abbey.
Culross may have been chosen to establish an abbey because this was the birthplace of Saint Mungo.
It is evident that the abbey was built over the earlier Pictish church supposedly founded by Saint Serf
in the 6th century.
The original 13th century abbey was cruciform in plan, without aisles. By the late 15th century the
lay brothers had left, and the abbey community consisted of only choir-monks. The western half of the abbey
was abandoned, and the nave was demolished around 1500. In 1633 the east choir of the abbey was taken over
for use as a parish church, while the adjoining buildings fell into decay. later changes happened in 17th century to
the north transept.
The abbey's restorations have taken place in the 19th and early 20th centuries and have left the buildings much as it is
seen today. The eastern parts of the church are still used for worship, and the Abbey is generally open to the public.
Also in this village is Culross Palace. It is a late 16th - early 17th century merchant's house.
The palace, or "Great Lodging", was constructed for Sir George Bruce, the Laird of Carnock. He was a successful
merchant who traded as faar afield as the Low Countries and the Baltic Sea. He had interests in coal mining and
salt production, and is credited with sinking the world's first coal mine that extended under the sea.
Rosyth Old Kirk and Graveyard
The church ceased to be used as a place for worship between 1630 and 1648. The churchyard is still used for interments.
The Church of Rosyth is said to have been dedicated to St John. It belonged to the See of Dunkeld, and was in existence at
least in the second half of the 12th century. The church ceased to be used as a place for worship by 1650. The churchyard
is still used for interments and contains memorials to fallen soldiers.
The name Queensferry is derived from Queen Margaret (Saint Margaret) who married King Malcolm Canmore and they
used this short strait to cross between Edinburgh and their favourite home in Dunfermline. It is said that Queen Margaret set
up this community as a colony for the ferrymen.
In much more recent times it has been the northern end of the Car Ferry serivce that linked with South Queensferry and only
ended with the opening of the Road Bridge in 1964. The harbour is now used for leisure craft and the community as an
attractive residential area.
The earliest recorded beginnings are likely to have started in AD 78 –87 when Agricola had a Roman encampment in this
area. From there beginning its strategic importance resulted in a community being established.This ferry point on the Firth of Forth
has been a Royal Burgh since 1165.In the centre of the town are the St Peter’s Kirk dating back to the 5th century and
founded by St Erat, one of St Ninian’s monks, Inverkeithing Priory (14th Century), Fordell’s Lodging (17th C) and the Mercat
Cross (14th C). The Mercat Cross commemorates the marriage of the Duke of Rothesay.This was also the location of the
Battle of Inverkeithing in 1651 when the supporters of Charles II failed to stop the Cromwellian army from advancing on
Samuel Greig (1735 –88)
A native of Inverkeithing he transferred from the British Navy to the Russian navy and reached the rank of Admiral, being
successful in rebuilding the Russian navy and winning several battles.
The Scottish missionary Robert Moffat also knew the town, his parents living in Heriot Street. Robert Moffat translated the
bible into African languages and his daughter was the wife of the famous David Livingstone.
All this land was on the Estate of Donibristle. The Monks of Inchcolme first owned the lands then after the reformation it
become the lands of the Earls of Moray. The Scottish Ballad “The Bonnie Earl o’ Moray relates to the Earl’s murdered in
1591 while in the area of the Donibristle estates.
St David’s Harbour
This was in earlier times a coal port used to transfer coal from the Fordell Colliery onto the boats. Between the Harbour
and the pit was one of the oldest wagon ways in Scotland.
Donibristle House and Chapel
On the shore and directly beside the Path the wings of the old Donibristle house can be seen. These have been
renovated and linked with a new building so that the impression of the old house can still be imagined. The Chapel associated with
Donibristle House was originally a private place of worship for the family of the old house. It has been preserved and can be
visited from the footpath via Chapel Villas.
St. Bridget's Kirk was in existence some time before 11 March 1178, as it is mentioned in a Papal Bull written by Pope
Alexander III declaring that "The Church at Dalgety with its appurtenances" be founded. Appropriated at that time by
Inchcolme Abbey, it was consecrated in 1244 by David de Bernham, Bishop of St. Andrews.
The community gets it name from the Dour river that runs through its centre. On the west side stands the ruined castle
and St Fillian’s Church on the east the 17th C Aberdour House the present home of the Earls of Morton. St Fillian’s had
early links with Inchcolme in the 12th C and is thought to slighty precede the building of the adjacent Castle. Both church
and castle have seen expansion and decline, the castle being mainly abandoned in 1725 for the Aberdour House but the
church being restored and re-used as a church in the early 1900’s.
The island is said to have taken its name from St Colme. Legend identifies St Colme with St Columba and this island
was seen as the Iona of the east coast.The island was identified, like Iona, as holy land and many even beyond Scotland
sought to be buried on the island – “close to heaven”. This is referred to in Shakespeare’s MacBeth. In more recent times
the islands were used as defensive islands to protect Rosyth naval docks during World War II.
The Abbey on the island was established under Alexander I who was stranded on the island in 1123. In gratitude he
chose Augustinians to set up a priory that was later granted Abbey status in 1235. The 14th C saw the original buildings
attached and plundered by the English but rebuilt in the 15th C.
This is a Royal Burgh developed around the 12th C Castle of Rossend and the harbour. The Castle has been added to
but was initially the residency of the Abbots of Dunfermline. The town has had connections with Mary Queen of Scots who
stayed in 1563 and with Cromwell in 1651. It was while the Queen was staying that the French poet Pierre Chastelard was
discovered in the Queen’s bedchamber and as this was not the first such occasion it ended in a trial and execution for
Chastelard at St Andrews.
The St Columba church was built in 1592 and is unique for several reasons. This was said to be the first church built after the Reformation, it has a square construction and the fact that the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland met
in this building in 1601 and proposed the adoption of the Authorised Version of the Bible.The town has seen considerable industry around
the harbour with trading to the Baltic and France. There has also been fishing, shipbuilding, coal and aluminium industry in
the town, but now it is seen more as a tourism location.
Alexander III was born at Roxburgh in 1241 the son of Alexander II. He married first Princess Margaret but through
early deaths he lost her, a granddaughter and two sons. He them re-married Yolande of Dreux in the hope of producing a
successor to the throne, but tragically he was thrown from his horse over cliffs on a journey back to Kinghorn from Edinburgh
and was found dead on the shore the following morning.
This is today the area that is principally identified by the extensive static caravans with dramatic views out over the Firth of Forth to East Lothian and the
City of Edinburgh. Below the main road on the coastline is the 1760 harbour of Pettycur. After it was built and by the end of that century there were up to 9 sailing vessels
plying between here and Leith forming a travellers link to the north. From Pettycur the route was north via Cupar to Newport-on-Tay, a
33 mile journey that can be still identified today with the orignial milestone markers. Indeed one such marker is located at the end of the Coastal Path and can be viewed by clicking here.
This had a castle in the early 13th C and in later 14th C it was granted to a son in law of Robert II and was renamed Glamis
Tower. This is now very much a visitor community with attractive harbour and beach.
Built of local red sandstone in the early 16th century by the Moultry family, this ruined castle lies between Kinghorn
and Kirkcaldy. Its site gives good views along the coast in either direction. Its last owner was Methven of Raith who
abandoned it in 1733.
The town is perhaps best known for past industry and inhabitants. The industry was floor coverings started by Michael Nairn's father in 1847. It was however Sir
Michael Nairn (1838 – 1915) who subsequently developed linoleum for which the town became famous. The inhabitants were Adam Smith (1723 – 90) who was born in the High Street and lived for
extended periods in the “Lang Toun” It was here that he wrote “The Wealth of Nations” with many of the theories coming
from the nearby Pathhead nailers. Robert Adam (1728 – 92) was also born in the town and became a well respected
architect in London and Scotland. He designed Register house and the Charlotte Square frontage in Edinburgh as well as
Culzean Castle in Ayrshire.
Located on the shore to the North end of Kirkcaldy this castle was built over a number of years starting in 1460 as a
gift from James II to his wife Mary of Gueldres. It was not however finished until the ownership had passed to the earls of
Orkney. It remained in use until the 17th C and its great distinction was the fact that it was specifically built as the first
castle to withstand cannon fire.
Although now part of Kirkcaldy the old Royal Burgh can trace its connections with coal back as far as 1424 and is
thought to be one of the first mining communities. Its other industry was nail making with 18th C figures showing over
100 employed making over 12 million nails per year.
St Serf’s Church is of historical interest dating back to the 16th C. This stands close to where a Dominican Monastery
was located.Close by is Pan Ha’ that takes its unusual name from the salt pans which were used to dry out seawater to
produce salt. Ha' is short for haugh, a flat area of land. The houses date from the 16th to 18th C and have been beautifully
In Rectory Lane is the John MacDouall Stuart museum, this in recognition of the 19th C Australian Explorer of the
same name who was born in this very house and brought up in the Fife Community.
The name Wemyss comes from the Gaelic “weems” for the sandstone caves that are common on this part of the
coastline.This was a port established for the transport of coal from the close Lochgelly mines. It was the coal that made the
Earls of Wemyss so wealthy. Although the port is no longer in existence the community retains the 18th C Tolbooth. Close by
is Wemyss Castle (15th C) the more extensive and comfortable replacement to the now ruined MacDuff castle. It is said that
it was in the Wemyss Castle that Queen Mary first met Darnley in 1565.
Perhaps best know for the Caves it is also the location of the ruined MacDuff Castle. Some of the caves are named, the
Glass Cave where one of the earliest glassworks in the country was established, the Court Cave named after an encounter
between James V and some gypsies and Well Cave just below the MacDuff Castle.
MacDuff, Earl of Fife
The first Earldom of Fife is recorded in 1139.This title has passed from the Duncan line via Robert Stewart to eventually
the Duffs of Braco. However the MacDuff name was associated with Duncan and this has been strenuously retained by
the Duffs so that the eldest son of the Duke of Fife is now Earl of MacDuff.
This has been a ruin since the Restoration, although the 2nd Earl of Wemyss had already moved from the castle to
the new Wemyss Castle prior to its demise. The castle was originally 14th C but what is seen today are the ruins of the
16th C additions. This started on land owned by the Wemyss and was associated with the “Thane of Fife” before passing
into other ownership before it return to the 1st Earl.
This community lies between the Largo Law, where Pictish Silverware was discovered in 1819 – 22, and Largo Bay. It
is divided into Upper Largo with its 17th C church and Lower Largo made famous by Alexander Selkirk (Robinson Crusoe).
A statue to Alexander Selkirk is located outside the cottage of his birth. Another famous naval son of the village was Sir
Andrew Wood ((1455 – 1515). His naval support was for James III and James IV. In 1489 – 90 he defended the Firth of Forth
against attack from the English and his command of the Yellow Carvel and the Flower resulted in the capture of three
Alexander Selkirk (1676 – 1721)
Born in Lower Largo he ran off to sea in the early 18th C as a navigator and explorer but turned into something of a
buccaneer. He fell out with the captain and requested to be set down on an island 800 miles off the coast of Chile where
he remained for over 4 years before being rescued by another vessel. On his return he published his experiences that were
than taken by Daniel Defoe and created into the book Robinson Crusoe.
Alexander Selkirk returned to the sea but now as a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy.
This is likely to have taken its name from early medieval times when a ferry ran from North Berwick to this point. History
suggests that The Earl of Fife, MacDuff who escaped from MacBeth from Kincraig Point with the assistance of local
fisherman requested Malcolm Canmore to make this a Royal Burgh. However James VI granted a second charter in 1589
where it said of the burgh that it was “old, past memory of man”.
Kincraig House dates from 1690 and at Kincraig Point one of the caves is known as “Mac Duff’s Cave”.
Originally a fishing village with a harbour dating back to 1582 this aspect of the village life declined in the late 19th
century and it is now seen as a village that attracts tourist and many seeking retirement. To the east of the harbour is
Wadehaven, this being a natural harbour that General Wade identified as being suitable for naval ships. It is a centre for
golfers and has produced its own Open Champion in the name of James Braid. James Braid's record includes five
championship wins between 1901 and 1910 the last win being at St Andrews.
On the High Street is located Elie Parish Church. This dates from 1639, though the tower was added in 1729. Because
there were no buildings to the rear of the church at the time the clock was added there are only three faces.
Lady’s Tower On the east side of Elie Ness, at Ruby Bay, is the partially restored Lady's Tower. This was built in the 1760s as a
summerhouse and changing room for Lady Jane Anstruther who was one of the early naturists. When she went swimming
she first sent a bell ringer around Elie to let the residents know they should keep away from the Bay.
This is a 14th C ruin with few remains, that was the stronghold of the Dishington family, relatives of Robert I. The path
goes through the centre of this historic location.
Consisting of a few fragments of an early thick wall, a round tower and domestic apartments built at a much later
date the castle stands on a rocky cliff overlooking the sea. Thought to be a 15th C castle built for the Sandilands it once
belonged to the famous soldier, David Leslie, the victor of the Battle of Philiphaugh, who built much of what now stands.
St Monan’s or Monance
The village was originally called Inverin but eventually took its name from St. Monan, a 6th C Irish Bishop. Some
suggest that his bones where brought to the area by missionaries fleeing the Vikings while others suggest that St Monan lived
in a nearby cave and was killed by invading pirates. The present Church was built in 1362 to replace an earlier Chapel. It
was built on the instructions of David II following a rescue of the King in the Firth of Forth. It has subsequently been restored
by William Burn in 1826 –8. The community is thought to be one of the best example of a Fife fishing village and has the
motto “Mar Vivmus” (We live by the Sea)
St Monan’s Windmill
On the East Braes, there were saltpans where seawater was evaporated using fires fuelled by the local coal. The windmill
on top of the raised beach pumped the seawater up into the pans. The salt and coal operations lasted about 30 years but
by 1844 the salt factory had completely disappeared. The ruined windmill has since been upgraded and grassy 'hollows'
mark the location of the saltpans.
This is the only remaining fishing port on the East Neuk that is active on a regular basis. Like other villages on the
East Neuk many houses echo the Dutch style with crow-stepped gables. The High Street exudes charm with baker's
shop and other local traders serving the locals and tourists alike.
Kellie Lodging in the High Street dates back to 1590. Once the home of the Earls of Kellie, it was restored in 1970.
Gyles house is owned by the National trust of Scotland. This was built in the early 1600’s and was the home of
Captain James Cook who carried Charles II over to France after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester in 1651.The east end
of the High Street finishes with the end gable of the Parish Church, joined in 1588 to the tower of the tolbooth which now
looking very much like the church tower. Parts of the church dates back to the 1300s and originally formed part of the
Priory. This priory grew out of a community founded by Augustinian monks who came here from the Isle of May in the
1200s. The old priory still remains in small parts and once had an underground passages leading to St Fillan’s cave. The
7th C St Fillan’s cave which is half way up one of the wynds opposite the harbour was used by the Saint as a chapel. This can be viewed but
only after requesting the key from a local High Street shop.
Close to the community but inland are Kellie Castle and Balcaskie House. Kellie Castle was first built in the 15th C but
with additional towers added in 16th & 17th C. Having been rescued and restored in the 19th & 20th C it is now in the
ownership of the National Trust of Scotland.
St Fillan’s Cave
The village name means “place of the cave”, and referring to St Fillan's cave in Cove Wynd, which was a chapel used
by St Fillan from the 600s. He is said to have written his sermons in the complete darkness of the cave, guided only be a
glow emitted by his arm. Over the centuries the cave has been respected as a shrine, except when it was used to store
fishing nets. It was re-dedicated in 1935 and services are still occasionally held here.
This is a combined community of what were at one time three coastal communities and one inland village. Wester
and Easter Anstruther along with Cellerdyke and Kilrenny now form a united Burgh. It is now the largest of the villages in
the East Neuk and provides the main shopping centre, a typical seaside village with many of the shops in a long line
overlooking the harbour. The harbour here has changes over the years, and most of this is recorded in the Scottish
Fisheries Museum. Today the harbour is undergoing another change, with the arrival of pontoons berthing tourist boats.
William Tennant (1784 – 1848) both was born and died in the village. He started his education from home due to
illness but went on to study and then return to St Andrew’s University as Professor of Oriental languages. He wrote poetry
and books that were said to inspire Lord Byron, amongst the works were “Anster Fair” and “The Thane of Fife and Papistry
Isle of May
About 6 miles off the coast from Anstruther and Crail, the island is now a nature reserve and sea bird sanctuary. From dating of archeological finds it is thought that there was pre Christian life on this island in about 2000 BC. It has also been an important Christian location. It is said that St Adrian who was a missionary to Fife was killed here by Danes in 870 and that his coffin was subsequently
washed up on the shore of Anstruther. In 12th C King David I founded a Priory on the island, the monks moving to
Pittenweem in the 14th C.
The Island’s lighthouses have been used to guide sailors since 1636. When a replacement for the old coal-burning
brazier was built Sir Walter Scott pleaded for the original lighthouse to remain alongside the Robert Stevenson lighthouse.
During the extended summer months access to the island can be got from Anstruther Harbour.
The nature reserve and the island are now under the control of Scottish Natural Heritage, and to access more on the nature reserve and access to the island click here.
This is one of the oldest Royal Burghs in Scotland gaining its status in 1178. Under a charter granted in 1310 by
Robert the Bruce the community was allowed to trade on the Sabbath. At the reformation John Knox preached one of his
strongest sermons in Crail, perhaps as a reminder of what he would have regarded as an unacceptable Sabbath day
The village can trace back its history to early Christian missionaries and to the 16th C influence of the Dutch. It is
the Dutch who are said to have built the harbour and this although never a deep sea fishing port was know for their “Crail
Capon” a locally caught and smoked haddock.The village however is now like Elie being a tourism and retirement location.
The first evidence of man's use of the site comes from ancient stone burial chambers called cists that have been
found opposite the Castle rock. Another burial site, Long Man's Grave, lies at the northeast end on the reserve. It is said to
be the burial place of a great Danish warrior.(www.swt-fife.org.uk/reserve3.htm)
This small community on the Kenly Water is likely to have taken its name from a Pictish pre-Christian Community
that was in the area. These pre-Christians would have been aware of the importance of the Boar in Celtic Iconography and
Myth, and it is likely that the name of the settlement would reflect the importance of this Icon.
Although the path only comes to the corner of Boarhill at a farm steading, it is only a matter of a few hundred yards to
the centre of the community and this carved stone.
This city of St Andrews has a long and interesting story, starting with a Pictish settlement that received in either the
4th or 8th C the remains of Saint Andrew. The settlement then went on to become one of the foremost Christian communities
in Scotland. It is also the location of the first Scottish University and the world acclaimed home of golf. Throughout its long
history there have been many highs and lows and a great amount of martyrdom. With so much history and interest we have
created a specifically linked page to address purely St Andrews.
Originally the Leuchars area was a vast marshland at the mouth of the River Eden. Both the Church and Leuchars
Castle, the latter which was demolished, occupied the higher ground and secured a vantage point over the surrounding
area. Extensive land reclamation about 1800 allowed Leuchars village to expand and the coming of the railway helped to
establish a prosperous community.
The name Leuchars comes from the Gaelic word "luachair" meaning place of the rushes.
The first recorded settlement was here in the late 1100s when Robert de Quinci built Leuchars Castle on Castle Knowe,
half a mile to the north. The Castle and its two successors built in the 1300s and 1500s have long since gone, leaving little
more than the artificial mound on which they stood. Also built by Robert de Quinci but more enduring was Leuchars Parish
Church, built in 1187 and dedicated to St Athernase in 1244. The original choir and apse still stand at the east end of
today's church, an example of the very best of Norman architecture.
Situated close to the RAF Leuchars the castle has its origins in the 16th C. The origin of the name could date back
to the Earls of Fife. Earlshall is slightly different from the standard L-plan tower house since it has an oval tower on one of
the external angles and a stair tower in the re-entrant angle. Construction began in 1546 by Sir William Bruce and was
completed by his great-grandson of the same name in 1617. The castle fell into disrepair and was rescued in 1891 when
Sir Robert Lorimer started the restoration. Lorimer also restored the 16th-century painted ceiling in the Long Gallery that
depicts subjects from heraldry, history and zoology. The museum section is open to the public.
This community lies close to the northeast tip of Fife. To the north it looks across the River Tay to Broughty Ferry. To
its east is the vast Tentsmuir Nature Reserve. A ferry service across the Tay was already well established when the lands
were granted to the newly formed Arbroath Abbey in about 1180. The abbey constructed shelter and lodgings for pilgrims
making the trip between St Andrews and Arbroath via the ferry and this formed the core of the settlement. The settlement
was called Partan Craig, Gaelic for "Crab Rock." Over the following centuries English eroded the name and by 1415 it had
become Port-in-Craige. In 1598 the settlement received its burgh charter and the name changed yet again to Ferry-Port on
Ferry-Port on Craig saw a dramatic increase in population at the end of the 1700s when displaced agricultural tenants
take advantage of jobs in the village's textile and shipbuilding industries. Leisure opportunities also increased. Golf came
early to Ferry-Port on Craig, with a course laid out in 1817. The ferry service from Ferry-Port on Craig to Broughty Ferry
remained of key importance with only a short decline with the development of Newport-on-Tay. But by the 1840's a steam
ferry service had once more resumed to Broughty Ferry. This was acquired by the Railways who used the route as a railway
ferry service in 1851 between what they chose to call Tayport and Broughty Ferry this forming a part of their rail service from Edinburgh
to Aberdeen. The simpler name of Tayport stuck. The rail ferry ceased operation finally in 1887, Tayport becoming a passenger
only ferry until 1920. With the opening of the Tay Road Bridge in 1966 Tayport has evolved as a dormitory village for Dundee.
Some industry remains, but the harbour is now given over almost wholly to leisure craft, and attractive new housing has been
built where once railway lines existed.
In the centre of the village is Ferry-Port on Craig Church, established in 1607 and rebuilt in 1794 and 1825. The unique
feature of the church is that the tower leans slightly at an angle. Parish worship however takes place at Tayport Parish
Church, which was built in 1843.
This community has always been heavily dependent on Dundee located on the other side of the Tay. Ferries in some
form were crossing this estuary from as early as 1100’s and in the 18th C there was a regular service between Woodhaven
and Dundee. With the financial help from the Guilds of Dundee a new pier and supporting buildings were established in the
centre of Newport on Tay, the name being given to the community was then “New Dundee” but this was not to last for long.
Also at this time there was a development of roads in the Fife region and Newport on Tay was in effect the northern
point and was used for the traveller moving from Edinburgh to Dundee and Aberdeen. The route then was a ferry from Edinburgh to Pettycur, the roads through Fife via Cupar to Newport then a ferry to Dundee and then road north to Aberdeen. At the
same time more and more wealthy industrialist and Jute Barons from Dundee were building houses in Newport getting away
from the city pollution. This all resulted in Thomas Telford building a steamboat pier in 1823 and further developing the
importance of the community. The coming of the Tay Rail Bridge in 1878 (and its replacement in 1887) confirmed
Newport-on-Tay as a highly desirable suburb of Dundee and the style of the shops and public buildings such as the old ferry
terminus reflect the grandeur of the times.The Tay Road Bridge, which opened in 1966, has had mixed impact on the
community. More expensive villas have been built but the commercial heart of the community has suffered due to the easy
access to the bigger centre in Dundee. The feeling is that it will however soon see the regeneration of the waterfront reversing
any decline that has occurred in the last 40 years.
Balmerino Abbey, or St Edward's Abbey, was a Cistercian monastic community founded in 1227 to 1229 by monks from Melrose Abbey.
this was donw under the patronage of Ermengarde de Beaumont and King Alexander II of Scotland.
It remained a daughter house of Melrose. It had approximately 20 monks at the beginning of the sixteenth century,
but declined in that century.
The Abbey was substantial in size as can be deduced from the plan that is shown to the right. Only a very small
part of the Abbey still remains.
In 1547 it was burned extensively by an English soldiers, and it is thought that it suffered further destruction in 1559
under the hands of the Scottish Protestants.
The ruins are now in the keeping of National Trust for Scotland, and the site is seen as a pilgrimage stop for several walkers.
This was a Tironensian abbey that lies on the southern banks of the River Tay, about 1-mile north of the village of Lindores.
The abbey was founded as a daughter house of Kelso Abbey about 1191 by David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion.
The first abbot was Guido, Prior of Kelso, under whom the buildings were mostly completed.
The church, was 195 feet long, with transepts 110 feet long. Edward I of England, John Balliol,
David II, and James III were among the monarchs who visited Lindores Abbey.
There is a suggestion that the earliers recorded whisky production was undertaken here by Friar Cor of Lindores for King James IV.
The abbey demise came by a mob from Dundee in 1543, and further extended by John Knox and his supporters in 1559.
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